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This Department of Defense (DOD) website and publication (ISSN 1939-2370) are authorized for access by members of the DOD and interested stakeholders. Contents of the IO Sphere and iosphere.org are not necessarily the official views of, or endorsed by, the US Government, DOD, the Joint Staff (JS), or the Joint Information Operations Warfare Center (JIOWC). The content is edited, reviewed for security, prepared, and provided by JIOWC J-51 Advocacy Office under the authority of the Director, JIOWC and the JS J-39/Deputy Director for Global Operations. Authors are required to conduct security review of all article submission with their own organization prior to submission. Blog entries are monitored by the IO Sphere staff and can be deleted without qualification. All photographs are the property of the DOD or JIOWC, unless otherwise indicated. Send articles, Letters to the Editor, or byline editorials to jiowc.iosphere@us.af.mil or JIOWC, Attn: IO Sphere Editor, 2 Hall Blvd, Ste 217, San Antonio, Texas 78243-7074. Articles in this publication may be reproduced without permission. If reproduced, IO Sphere and contributing authors request a courtesy line and appropriate source citation.

IO Sphere is an unclassified professional journal in periodical form, published quarterly by the JIOWC, San Antonio, Texas. Content consists of feature articles, research paper extracts, interviews, commentaries/editorials on all aspects of Information Operations (IO), and supporting disciplines such as intelligence. Contributors comprise military and civilian scholars, operators, and analysts at the graduate and postgraduate level.

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